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Fishhook Classification

Barrel Shank Jabbing
*****This group was designated by Sinoto (1966:299) and identified by him as Type 1A(1)1 according to his classification. These fishhooks are characterized by a straight shank with a thick, round cross section, a U-shaped bend, straight point parallel to the shank, and head formed by a narrow groove circumscribing the shank.
*****This type was apparently not found by Suggs nor has it be definitely identified in the Tubuai collection.

V-Bend Jabbing
*****This group is distinguished by a slightly incurved shank joined by a V-shaped bend to a straight, out turned point. Although related to other groups this one is clearly different.


*****This type of hook is present as demonstrated by two fragments, one of which is illustrated in Diagram 17.13 example n. Roletts illustrated example of this type (Figure. 7.1 c) is not as V-shaped as the Tubuai examples, while the larger Bent Upper Shank hook illustrated by Suggs (1961, Fig. 26 f) is more akin to this form. Basically an open Jabbing hook, the Tubuai fragments are just under medium sized (about 2 cm. long). The above hook was recovered from the ATIAHARA excavations, it seems to match well Rolett's description as well as his illustrated example Fig 7.1d, however certain other Tubuai hooks indicate a more distinct V-bend.

Compound Shank
*****This group was named by Suggs (1961:82) for the feature, observed among ethnological specimens, of having a pearl shell support lashed to the flat back of the shank (Linton 1923:138). Two examples have round cross section shanks and were presumably designed to function without the support (Suggs 1961:82, Sinoto 1970:110). In general, Compound Shank hooks have a straight shank flaring to a knobbed head, with another small knob at the base of the shank, an angular bend, and a slightly incurved point.
*****These fishhooks were recovered by Suggs from Expansion and Classic culture sites on Nukuhiva, as well as from the Settlement and Developmental culture deposits of Ha'atuatua and Ho'oumi but Suggs considered the specimens from early contexts to be intrusive. Sinoto also found examples from both early and late contexts on Ua Huka and Hiva Oa.
*****This type has not been found thus far in Tubuai.

Acute Recurved Point
*****This group was named by Suggs (1961:81) for the acute angle of the bend and the recurved point tip. The point length is variable, from about one-half to more than the shank length. Suggs found that fishhooks in the Acute Recurved Point group occur throughout the Nukuhiva cultural sequence. Fishhooks of this group are also represented in small numbers among artifact assemblages spanning the cultural sequences of Ua Huka and Hiva Oa. In the Hanamiai assemblage, the group is represented by a single specimen (Th1 Ei3-5) from Zone CD.


***** It is interesting to note that an acute recurved point can be found on different types, thus in specimen t (Diagram 17.13) we see an excellent example, also the Turbo-shell example c (Diagram 17.13) could be related to this type although the bend is more U-shaped. These hooks may be linked to the early Pukapuka hooks as illustrated by Chikamori 1987, Figure 6. Certainly these early forms are an important link in the chain.
*****From the examples of Suggs and Rolett we see that a distinct hook of this type exists, apart from all the other hooks that might have an acute recurved point. The hook illustrated by Suggs and Rolett is a largish long thin and flat hook with a necessarily tight bend, the above fragment certainly derives from a hook of this type. This fragment was recovered from the lowest layer at ATIAHARA.

Angular Shank
*****The diagnostic features of this group are an angle or pronounced curve in the upper shank, an acute angled bend, and a slightly incurved point. Fishhooks in this group are closely related to the Bent Upper Shank group and in the case of some fragmented specimens it is not possible to make a distinction.
*****This group was not documented by Suggs. It appears to be a diagnostic trait of the Settlement and Developmental cultures, judging by its stratigraphic distribution in the Hane and Hanatekua sites.
***** Roletts illustrated examples of this type look as though they could easily be slightly deformed Curved shank hooks, and their relationship to these will anyway be reaffirmed by the form of the point leg. I think a distinct type does exist as demonstrated by the Hawaiian examples which in turn appear to be directly linked to the early Pukapuka forms (Chikamori 1987, Figure 6). In Tubuai we have not yet found this early form however angular shanks are seen, as in example t (Diagram 17.13).

Bent Upper Shank
*****The description of this group, originally designated by Suggs (1961:81) is broadened here to include hooks with curved bends in addition to those with angular ones. The diagnostic features are a pronounced curve in the upper shank, with a straight lower shank joining the point in a broad angle or U-shaped bend. *****Specimens of this group, especially those with curved bends, closely resemble some Angular shank hooks. Bent upper Shank hooks are known only from the settlement and Developmental occupations of the sites on Nukuhiva and Hiva Oa.

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