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Fishhook Classification

*****This group is described on the basis of two complete and two fragmented specimens from Ha'atuatua, Hane and Hanamiai. The chief diagnostic feature is a long, pointed, distal extension of the bend. The shank is straight or slightly incurved, with or without an inner shank barb. The point is straight and angled outwards.
***** The complete, bone specimen from Hanamiai TH1 M12-4 is from Zone GH/H and the fragmented one, TH1-J12-2 is from Zone AB. The Hane specimen is from the deepest cultural deposit of test pit J86, a layer Sinoto (1966:290) considers to represent the earliest settlement culture occupation of the site. The specimen from Ha'atuatua was a surface find (Suggs 1961:82).
*****There has been no indication of this form in the Tubuai collection thus far, nor have any bone hooks been found.

Wiggly Shank
*****This group, comprising Marquesan specimens only from Hiva Oa, was named by Sinoto (1970:117) after Green's Type 4, reported for Mangareva. The unique characteristic feature of fishhooks of this group is the shank, with its abrupt angle and irregular curves. The three known Marquesan specimens are all from Developmental culture deposits of the Hanatekua site.

**J11 L4 (28) 121 BD *****O5 L4 (20) 126 BD

***** Two brilliant Tubuai examples have been recovered from the excavations at ATIAHARA. These demonstrate that the wiggly shank form is a distinct type and I have separated them from another type which which I have designated as Reversed Shank.

Reversed Shank
*****Now that a number of these unusual hooks have been recovered I feel confident that they can be given a distinct nitch of their own and that they should not be mixed with the above wiggly shank form. They range in size from large to small and are found even in examples made of Turbo-shell.

453-240-PSH-13f ***** J11 L6 (36) 146 BD

Green notes also a small example from Moorea (1967:188, Fig.19 l).

*****Suggs (1961:81) named this group after the term for similar hooks from Hawaii (Emory, Bonk, and Sinoto 1959). The diagnostic features of Marquesan fishhooks of this group are the curved shank, broad U-shaped bend, and slightly incurved point. Specimens with broken points are difficult to distinguish from Obtuse Recurved Point hooks. In general the curve in the shank of Rotating hooks is less pronounced than that in the shank of Circular and Curved Shank hooks. Few specimens are complete enough to permit secure identification. However, the spatial and chronological distribution of these fishhooks is closely associated with that of the Curved Shank and Circular hooks except at MH10 where it is unclear whether they are present or whether all the possible specimens are of the Obtuse Recurved Point group. Fishhooks of this group are prevalent only in the Settlement and Developmental culture artifacts assemblages and are found throughout the Marquesas.


*****Roletts illustrated example of this type (Figure 7.1 o) is questionable and the definition of "slightly incurved point " doubtful in terms of the example illustrated by Suggs (1961 Figure 26 i and Comparative Diagram 17.16f) or the Hawaiian examples. Thus I think his analysis a bit confused, be that as it may this form is well represented in the Tubuai collection (as defined by Suggs) and is also evident in the Huahine excavations where the forms are more perfectly circular or spiraled. I have reproduced in Diagram 17.16d a large example from the Maupiti Burials which compares well with the example of Suggs which is also a large hook. Certainly this group needs to be more clearly defined, not only in terms of shank curvature but also in the length of the point leg and the part of the shank to which the point tip is pointed.
*****In as much as Rolett has classified these hooks as Circular and given the fact that the term rotating might now be better applied to a whole class of hooks, I have taken the liberty of renameing this type as Circular Rotating hook.
*****This is certainly one of the most important types which is found throughout Eastern Polynesia and appears to be an important early type in the New Zealand hooks, these however are found with inside steps. Inside steps are also found on the Marquesan examples although more shallow than the New Zealand forms. In Tubuai inside stepped forms as well as the plain outside notched types have already been identified.

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